A high NCD burden country: Australia:

A high NCD burden country: Australia:.

Question 1: Non-Communicable Diseases
“A high NCD burden country: Australia:
Australia is a high- income nation, consisting of over 24 million individuals,
where NCDs account for 90% of all deaths. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the
leading cause of death at 35% followed by cancer at 29%, respiratory disease at
6%, diabetes at 3%, and finally other NCDs accounting for 17% of the mortality
rate. Since 2000, mortality due to CVD and diabetes has decreased; however,
incidences of death due to cancer, chronic respiratory and other NCDs has
increased. The majority of NCD related deaths occur in individuals over the age
of 60, with 86.6% prevalence in males and 90.8% in females. Australia’s high
NCD burden can be attributed to behavioural risk factors with, for example,
16.8% of the population smoking daily and 40.3% of the population physically
inactive according to WHO guidelines. Although the mean systolic blood
pressure and cholesterol is on the decline, there remains a high incidence of
these metabolic risk factors, with 36.4% prevalence of raised blood pressure
and 57.4% of raised cholesterol. Body mass index is also rising, with 63.2% of
the population overweight and 26.8% obese.” – (Rayner et al, 2017)
Above paragraph is a case study for NCD status in Australia, adapted from “An Introduction
to Population-level Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases” written by Rayner et al,
Choose ONE of the NCDs mentioned in this paragraph, which is on the rise in your location
of choice. Answer the following questions for your chosen NCD in 500 words, using an
appropriate referencing style:
a) Identify the risk factors and determinants of your chosen non –communicable
disease. How those risk factors are contributing to this rise (in your country’s
context)? Provide an evidence-based explanation. (2)
b) List two actions, best suitable to prevent this rise? Justify your choice (2)
c) The World Health Organisation 2018 has recommended intervention plans for each of
the NCD (see the attached document). List and briefly discuss the health system
challenges which could be faced by your country of choice if it follows the suggested
intervention plans. (3)
Question 2: Global Mental Health
“I’ve often been labelled as a schizophrenic, psychotic, manic- depressive and
psychotic depressive person. I don’t really believe in those labels, but there
have been times in my life when I went into what can be called a manic
episode, and then I went into severe depressions. What I’m doing with my life
right now is trying to learn how to control what I call my manic energy. If it can
be controlled, directed, and channelled, it could be valuable and very powerful.
I would rather learn how to control it, rather than be cured of it”.
This is a self-described emotional state of a person with mental illness.
a) How a person with a mental health issue is usually treated in our society? Write a
short report on stigma and mental health (3)
Word limit: 200 words
b) How can a society help people with mental illness? List at least four community public
health interventions targeting this issue. Use some evidence. (4)
Word limit: 300 words
Question 3: Global environmental health
Recently school students around the world gathered together for an environmental
In March 2019, tens of thousands of young Australian students called school strike and
walked out of school to take part in the “School Strike 4 Climate” rally. It was a part of a
worldwide movement called #FridaysforFuture. Young students around the world have been
claiming that climate change is one of the biggest problems the world is facing at the
moment, and this problem is not being addressed quickly and timely manners. They have
been demanding world leader’s attention to take appropriate initiatives to protect the
world climate. In Australia, students have presented three demands:
1. Stop the Adani coal mine
2. No new coal, oil and gas projects
3. 100% renewable energy by 2030
Consider the following scenario:
“You are a young environmental health researcher and have been asked to prepare a
short report for a journal on a key climate change policy that reflects students concern for
the environment.”
You should address following questions within the given word limit of 500 words, using an
appropriate referencing style:
a) Choose one existing environmental issue related to non-renewable energy resources
that can cause serious public health problems in near future (globally or in a location
of your choice). Justify your choice using SDG’s as your point of reference. (3)
b) Is there an existing environmental health policy for your chosen issue (in the location
of your choice)? Discuss if the existing policy is enough or if there is a need to modify
it to achieve the relevant SDG/s. (2)
c) Write two recommendations which can help in improving the implementation of the
existing policy. (2)
Question 4: Emergencies and displacements
According to the UN the Rohingya’s situation is the -world’s fastest growing refugee crisis”,
with hundreds of thousands of people fleeing their homes in Rakhine province of Myanmar
(Burma) for neighbouring Bangladesh since August 2017. Now, Rohingya refugee camps are
the world’s largest refugee camps, in Bangladesh.
This following link below is for a video titled: “Rohingya crisis deepens in Bangladesh”. This
video is about the plight of hundreds of thousands of these displaced refuges.
Warning: This video contains some scenes which might be distressing for some students.
Reflect on this video.
Write a short blog style article (500 words) discussing the impact of this refugee crisis on
immediate and long-term health problems, with a special focus on elderly, women and
children. (7)

A high NCD burden country: Australia:


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