citing and referencing practice

citing and referencing practice.

To get ready for the assignment this week, please read the Sociology Essay Overview Sociology Essay Overview – Alternative Formats .

This week you’ll be practicing some basic writing/citing skills. Once you’ve read the Overview, then read the following information to learn more about the expectations for in-text citing, referencing, and outlines as these will guide your writing assignment this week.

What is an in-text citation?

Within your paragraphs, an in text citation is a short indication to the reader that you have learned the information from a source.  It is a sure-fire way to avoid plagiarism!  In research papers, students will summarize content of another source (e.g., the textbook and articles on a web site), without adding personal opinion or experience, and then cite the source to ensure that proper credit is given to the thought originator.

What is a reference?

A reference is an extension of an in text citation.  It shows the entire reference for a source so that a reader can find the article, book, or web site in case they want to read or confirm information.  Citations and references must match.  If you cite “Schaefer 2015” you must have a full reference with the same name and year. 

Here are examples (made up for the purpose of this assignment) of citations (that would go within the paragraph) followed by references (that would go a the end of the paper):

According to Smith (2015), research papers are an excellent way for students to learn how to summarize material.  It should also be noted that finding high quality research from web searches is challenging since “much of the information on the internet is not scholarly” (Institute for Teaching Research n.d., para 2).


Smith, L.O. (2015). Research Papers: A Student Guide (3 rd ed).  Palo Alto, CA, Prentice Hall  Publishing.

Institute for Teaching Research. n.d.  Interesting Teaching Facts, para 2. Retrieved on December 20, 2015 from


There are two parts to this week’s Essay Prep assignment. First, you’ll practice citing and referencing. Second, after reviewing the textbook *(Textbook:  Schaefer, R.T.  (2019). Sociology: A brief introduction (13th ed.).    McGraw-Hill Education) information in chapter 7 on White Collar crimes and reviewing the FBI web site, you’ll select three White Collar crimes to write about for your final essay assignment. 

Part 1. Practicing APA

  • Quote from the textbook and cite per APA
  • Paraphrase and cite from any the page of interest at the FBI web site.
  • Complete a reference list for the textbook and the website you cited above

Part 2. Essay Topics

Your final paper will have five paragraphs: an Introduction, three content paragraph on the White Collar crimes of your choice, and a Conclusion. To get started exploring White Collar crimes, go to the F BI White Collar Crime web site and review the Major Threats and Programs. After reading through a few pages of interest to you, list three White Collar crimes that you’ll write your paper on to complete Part 2 of this week’s assignment.

  • Topic 1:
  • Topic 2:
  • Topic 3:

citing and referencing practice


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