Researched ArgumentAMST 352-01War and Terrorism in Popular CultureUMBCInstru.
War and Terrorism in Popular Culture
Instructor: Ellen Gorman
Argument Sentence Due: May 16, 2021 by 10:00 pm on Blackboard Discussion Forum Argument Due: May 18, 2021 by 10:00 p.m. on Blackboard
Choose a side of an issue we have read about and examined in the course with relation to war and terrorism in the United States.
This requires you to form an opinion (or choose one of those you have formed already!) as you consider the texts we read, watched and listened to throughout the course and the various artistic and political points of view you have encountered.
Structure an argument based on the following Aristotelian rhetorical model (ethos, logos, pathos)
• Choose the aspect or aspects from the model that work best for your argument, but make sure to include one from each of the three (ethos, logos, pathos).
• Provide (8) pieces of research from different/distinct sources (statistics, quotes, facts, stories from people involved in the issue, etc.) within the text of your argument to support it.
• These eight pieces of research should be from eight different sources.
• Your argument should be no less than 600 words, and not exceed 800.
• Do not cite your sources parenthetically in the argument itself – parenthetical citations will interrupt the
flow of your prose and your rhetorical effectiveness.
• Name your sources and their affiliations for more cultural capital and thus rhetorical effectiveness. For
example: “According to head of the Board of Genetics at NIH Jeffrey Jones…”
• No footnotes or endnotes in the argument – your sources will be listed in the Works Cited.
• Cite your research per MLA Handbook Style for Research Papers:
Remember that an argument is a piece of rhetoric – you are trying to persuade, so phrase and organize your argument accordingly.
Avoid inflammatory and unreasonable language that may delimit your persuasive power.
Make sure to include one aspect of pathos, which is usually a story or narrative that is meant to evoke emotion…just mentioning that people have suffered from a situation doesn’t qualify as pathos – you have to really describe and detail that suffering so that your reader is able to feel the power of that which you are arguing against.
Start and end strong, making your argument clear – it is important that there is no question as to what you are claiming.
This is your argument – own it. Use “I” throughout. Failure to do so will result in a lack of rhetorical effectiveness and a reduction of points.
Argument Sentence (due on May 16):
• Submit one sentence (one sentence only!) in which you clearly and plainly state what it is you are arguing.
• In your sentence you will be sure to be using “I” and to have been specific about the issue you have
chosen (i.e., you can’t take on all of civil liberties, surveillance, gun violence, etc. in this brief space of 600
– 800 words!).
• You may use the basic sentence structure: “I argue that….” or come up with another format but make it
clear that you have chosen a side of an issue in which there are clearly two sides, that someone could
argue against what you have stated!
• Don’t be vague or dance around the issue you have chosen – this is your opinion so make it clear that you
are standing behind it. Remember: just stating that a situation exists is not articulating an argument. If you say, “There is a lack of privacy in the US with regard to surveillance right now…” that does not indicate that you are arguing anything yet, but rather are stating what you see as a fact…what do you think about the lack of privacy (don’t make assumptions)– is it good, necessary, bad, dangerous…make it clear in your phrasing what you think, what your opinion is, not just what you see is going on. Your rhetoric needs to be clear and strong in order to be persuasive!
Rubric for Grading:
Adherence to Assignment Criteria: Structure and cogency of argument: Editing and Timeliness of Submission
% of grade
60 20 20
ARISTOTELIAN RHETORIC (Modes of Persuasion)
Ethos (think ETHICAL Appeal of the Writer)
This appeal involves convincing your audience that you are intelligent and can be trusted. Writers cannot simply say to their audience “I can be trusted because I’m smart and a good person.” This appeal is perhaps the most difficult to establish; you have to prove yourself by demonstrating that you understand what you are arguing because:
you are providing
• personal experience or
• know someone else who has personal experience, you are using expert support
• through extensive research,
• through up-to-date research
• through recognized authorities in the field (this will also help to prevent your appeal from seeming too
you are using appropriate writing style
• by means of professional and strong words that carry appropriate connotations; be sure that you don’t sound overly emotional,
• by using mostly 3rd person. Only use 1st person when providing a specific personal experience you are treating your audience with respect by
• establishing some common ground in a refutation section.
◦ Find some mutual ground for both sides of the argument by acknowledging that your opinion and the opinion of the opposite side agree on at least one aspect. This is essential in establishing your ethos (or credibility) and your ability to treat the topic fairly. However, be careful not to over-do this; remember which side you are supporting.
Logos (think LOGICAL Appeal)
You appeal to logic when you rely on your audience’s intelligence and when you offer credible evidence to support your argument. That evidence includes:
• FACTS- These are valuable because they are not debatable; they represent the truth
• EXAMPLES- These include events or circumstances that your audience can relate to their life
• PRECEDENTS- These are specific examples (historical and personal) from the past
• AUTHORITY- The authority must be timely (not outdated), and it must be qualified to judge the topic
• DEDUCTIVE/INDUCTIVE- Deductive reasoning is when you pick apart evidence to reach conclusions, and
inductive reasoning is when you add logical pieces to the evidence to reach conclusions.
Pathos (think PASSIONATE or emotional Appeal)
This kind of appeal can be very effective if it’s not over-done, especially if your topic is an emotional one. Because your audience has emotions as well as intellect, your argument must seek to engage the audience emotionally. However, using emotional appeal alone is not as effective as when it is used in conjunction with logical and/or ethical appeals. The BEST way to incorporate pathos (or emotional) appeals is by using words that carry appropriate connotations.