The depolarization that produces Na+ channel opening also causes delayed activation of K+ channels and Na+ channel inactivation, leading to repolarization of the membrane potential as the action potential sweeps along the length of an axon (see Figure 3.12). In its wake, the action potential leaves the Na+ channels inactivated and K+ channels activated for a brief time. These transitory changes make it harder for the axon to produce subsequent action potentials during this interval, which is called the refractory period. Thus, the refractory period limits the number of action potentials that a given nerve cell can produce per unit time. As might be expected, different types of neurons have different maximum rates of action potential firing due to different types and densities of ion channels.